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What is a hernia?


A hernia occurs when an organ is removed through a hole in a muscle or tissue that holds it in place. For example, the intestines may protrude from a weakened area in the abdominal wall. There are different types of hernia in terms of its location, but more in the area of the abdomen are common, but can be in the upper thigh, belly, and groin areas also appear. Most hernias are not life-threatening, but they do not go away on their own and sometimes require surgery to prevent their potentially dangerous side effects. In fact, a hernia occurs where the tissue wall that supports the limb is weak.

Common types of hernias

Inguinal hernia

Groin hernia: It makes up about 70% of hernias and is the most common type of hernia. It is seen when the intestine presses through the weakened point and enters the abdominal wall. The groin canal in men is the entry point of sperm (menu cord) from the abdomen into the scrotum and In women, it contains a ligament that helps hold the uterus in place; Of course, this hernia is more common in men. Men’s testicles pass through the groin canal shortly after birth. This canal should be completely closed after passing the testicles, but sometimes it is not completely closed and creates a weak and prone area of hernia.


Hiatal hernia

This type of hernia is more common in people over 50 years of age. In this condition, part of the stomach enters the chest cavity through an incision in the diaphragm. Symptoms of hiatal hernia include reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus and heartburn.


Umbilical hernia

This hernia is seen in infants under 6 months. In this type of disease, the baby’s intestines protrude through an incision in the abdominal wall near the navel. This type of hernia is the only one that resolves spontaneously because the abdominal muscles become stronger over time.


Shear hernia

An incisional hernia may develop after abdominal surgery. The intestine protrudes through an incision or weak tissue around it.

Hernia surgery is performed in one of two ways:

Open surgery: in which an 8 to 10 cm incision is made in the groin or hernia area. This incision is made inside the skin and subcutaneous fat so that the surgeon can reach the surface of the lesion. This procedure is usually performed under local anesthesia and hypnotics, but spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia may be used.

Laparoscopic surgery: In this procedure, a laparoscope (small telescope) attached to a special camera is inserted into the body through a cannula (hollow tube) and allows the surgeon to view the hernia and surrounding tissues on a monitor. Slowly Other tubes are inserted into the body so that the surgeon can perform the surgery. Usually 3 or 4 holes of one centimeter are required.

The hernia is repaired from the back of the abdominal wall. This type of surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia and spinal or local anesthesia is rarely used.

What are the benefits of laparoscopic hernia surgery?

In each laparoscopic case, the rate of complications, surgical scar, and duration of postoperative pain are lower and return to work and daily activities is faster; But the recurrence rate does not differ between the two groups. Based on this finding, it is recommended that this method be used in the treatment of inguinal hernias.

Laparoscopic procedures are impractical for a small number of patients. Factors that increase the likelihood of choosing or converting surgery from laparoscopic to open surgery may include: obesity, a history of previous abdominal surgery, leaving a dense tissue scar, inability to see organs in the body with a laparoscope Or bleeding during surgery.

Deciding whether open surgery should be performed is a decision that the surgeon makes before or during surgery.